11 Elements of Effective Adolescent Writing Instruction

A Report to Carnegie Corporation of New York WRITING NEXT

Writing Next - Bookmarks

1. Writing Strategies (Effect size = 0.82) - involves teaching students strategies for
planning, revising, and editing their compositions.

2. Summarization (Effect size = 0.82) - involves explicitly and systematically teaching
students how to summarize texts.

3. Collaborative Writing (Effect size = 0.75) - uses instructional arrangements in which
adolescents work together to plan, draft, revise, and edit their compositions.

4. Specific Product Goals (Effect size = 0.70) - assigns students specific, reachable goals
for the writing they are to complete.

5. Word Processing (Effect size = 0.55) - uses computers and word processors as
instructional supports for writing assignments.

6. Sentence Combining (Effect size = 0.50) - involves teaching students to construct more
complex, sophisticated sentences.

7. Prewriting (Effect size = 0.32) - engages students in activities designed to help them
generate or organize ideas for their composition.

8. Inquiry Activities (Effect size = 0.32) - engages students in analyzing immediate,
concrete data to help them develop ideas and content for a particular writing task.

9. Process Writing Approach (Effect size = 0.32) - interweaves a number of writing
instructional activities in a workshop environment that stresses extended writing
opportunities, writing for authentic audiences, personalized instruction, and cycles of writing.

10. Study of Models (Effect size = 0.25) - provides students with opportunities to read,
analyze, and emulate models of good writing.

11. Writing for Content Learning (Effect size = 0.23) - uses writing as a tool for learning
content material.

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